Diabetes – Definition, Causes, and Treatment Options

Diabetes – Definition, Causes, and Treatment Options

Diabetes – Definition, Causes, and Treatment Options


Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic medical condition characterized by elevated blood sugar levels, which wreaks havoc on the body.

Unlike type 1 diabetes, the pancreatic tissue in T2D is intact with regular production of insulin. Moreover, there is no autoimmune component, and the risk factors are somewhat different.

T2D is commonly seen in obese individuals above the age of 40, with multiple risk factors of diabetes.

The primary dysfunction of T2D is cellular resistance to the action of insulin. In other words, the concentrations of insulin in the bloodstream are physiological, but its action on the cells is compromised.

For decades, researchers believed that this was the only disrupted function in type 2 diabetes. However, recent evidence suggests that patients with T2D eventually develop relative insulin deficiency via the active destruction of the pancreatic tissue.

Note that the degree of destruction is nowhere near that of type 1 diabetes.

The combination of insulin resistance and its relative deficiency make up the hallmarks of diabetes pathophysiology.

What causes type 2 diabetes?

The exact causes that lead to T2D are still unclear due to the complex pathophysiological processes and the high number of variables involved.

Nevertheless, researchers believe that the concept of ‘nature and nurture’ sufficiently explains this disease.

Let’s decipher this concept:

The nature part

If you have a family history of T2D, your risk of developing the disease is relatively higher than the general population.

According to a 2012 study, family history increases the risk of T2D by 2.5-fold. If obesity gets added to the equation, the risk increase can reach 20-fold.

The nurture part

The nurture part is extremely important in type 2 diabetes, as it involves numerous risk factors that predispose people to the disease.

The most prevalent risk factors are:

  • Obesity
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Dyslipidemia
  • Smoking
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)

By far, obesity is the most important risk factor, especially around the abdominal and waist region.

Researchers believe that eating carb-rich meals for a long time creates a vicious cycle of glucose and insulin spikes, which decrease the sensitivity of cells to insulin action.

The higher the glycemic index, the more extreme the spikes will be. For instance, soda and synthetic juices mainly contain simple sugars, which rapidly augment blood glucose levels and lead to the subsequent insulin spike.

To summarize, consuming foods with a high glycemic index will stimulate your pancreas multiple times a day, triggering a spiking pattern of insulin secretion and increasing your risk of T2D.

Early Signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes

The signs and symptoms of T2D are similar to type 1 diabetes. However, the clinical presentation of T2D generally presents at a later age (over 40 years old), whereas type 1 diabetes patients experience these symptoms during adolescence.

Here are the most common signs and symptoms of T2D:

  • Generalized fatigue
  • Polyphagia (i.e., feeling hungry all the time)
  • Polydipsia (i.e., excessive thirst)
  • Polyuria (i.e., more than 3 liters of urine in 24 hours)
  • Dry mouth
  • Itchy skin
  • Acanthosis nigricans (dark discoloration in body folds and creases)

The treatment options for type 2 diabetes

The treatment of T2D focuses on addressing lifestyle habits and supplying patients with pharmacological drugs.

Dietary measures and exercise

After being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, your doctor will perform a comprehensive physical examination to identify any diabetes-associated complications.

If everything looks clear, the first line of therapy would be making lifestyle modifications (e.g., healthy dietary choices, regular exercise).

While this might seem insignificant, around 25% of patients diagnosed with T2D get cured after sticking to a healthy diet and increasing their physical activity routine.


This drug is the preferred pharmacological treatment for patients with T2D.

It decreases the production of new glucose molecules and increases the storage of glycogen inside the liver and muscle tissue. Moreover, metformin promotes weight loss, which helps control blood sugar levels.


If oral hypoglycemic drugs fail to regulate your blood sugar, the doctor may recommend insulin therapy to restore the balance and prevent complications.

Takeaway message

Type 2 diabetes is a complex disease that presents with numerous therapeutic challenges, which require the cooperation of patients with their doctors to improve the prognosis.

Hopefully, this article managed to shed some light on T2D,